After the Battle of Resaca, Confederate General Joseph E Johnston took his army south, while Union General William T Sherman pursued. Looking for a good defensive position, Johnson moved on to Adairsville while the Cavalry fought rearguard actions. Sherman divided his troops into three columns, and advance on a broad front.
On May 17th 1864 Union Major General Oliver O Howard’s IV Corps began skirmishing about two miles from Adairsville with Confederate Lieutenant General William J Hardee’s entrenched Corps. The 24th Wisconsin and 44th Illinois attacked Confederate Benjamin F Cheatham’s division near the Octagon House receiving heavy losses. With three Union divisions preparing for attack, darkness fell and called off the fighting.
Sherman concentrated all his troops in the Adairsville area, preparing to attack Johnston the next morning. Johnston finding the valley at Adairsville to wide, leaving him no place to anchor his flanks, he withdrew his troops.
If you are interested in reading more about the Battle of Adairsville, GA is a good place to start.