Sunday, October 30, 2011

He Ordered The Great Train Chase

Union Major General Ormsby McKnight Mitchel who ordered the Great Locomotive Chase died October 30th 1862.

Ormsby McKnight Mitchel was born August 28th 1809-10 in Union County, Kentucky.  He grew up in Lebanon, Ohio where he worked as a clerk until receiving an appointment to West Point in 1825.  Mitchel graduated 15th out of 46 in 1829.  He stayed on at West Point for three years where he taught mathematics.  Mitchel passed the bar and became an attorney, before returning to teaching mathematics and natural philosophy at Cincinnati College.  In 1845 Mitchel was appointed director of the observatory at the College, which had the second largest refracting telescope in the world.  In 1859 he moved on the Dudley Observatory in Albany, New York, as their superintendent.

When the Civil War started Mitchel joined the Union army as a Brigadier General.  He commanded the Union Department of the Ohio from September to November 1861.  During this time Mitchel worked with James J Andrew to steal a train in Georgia to disrupt Confederate railroads, at the time Mitchel planned an attack on Chattanooga, Tennessee.  Although the plan failed and Andrew was captured and hanged the raid become known as “The Great Locomotive Chase”.  Mitchel led a division in the Army of the Ohio until July 1862.  He seized the city of Huntsville, Alabama without a shot being fired in April 1862.  He received a promotion to Major General for this.  Mitchel was place in command of Tenth Corps and the Department of the South at Hilton Head, South Carolina in September 1862.  He died in Beaufort, South Carolina of Yellow Fever October 30th 1862, and is buried in the Green Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

Fighting In The Dark

The Battle of Wauhatchie; a rare night battle was fought October 29th 1863 along the Georgia Tennessee boarder.

On October 28th 1863 Union General Joseph Hooker moved his soldiers through Lookout Valley.  He detached a division under Brigadier General John W Geary to Wauhatchie Station to protect his communications as well as the road to Kelley’s Ford.  Geary had about 1,500 men and was posted in an isolated area.  Confederate General James Longstreet determined to attack this Union force.  Longstreet ordered a night attack be made by Brigadier General Micah Jenkins.  At the same time Longstreet moved against Hooker to keep him from reinforcing Geary.

The battle was supposed to open by 10 pm on October 28th 1863, but was delayed until after midnight.  Geary was expecting an attack and had sent out pickets, but he was still surprised.  As the Union troops were hit from the north they formed a V-shaped battle line facing east and north.  When Hooker heard the sounds of the battle he ordered Union Major General Carl Schurz to march to Wauhatchie Station and reinforce Geary.  In the confusion however Union Brigadier General Adolph von Steinwehr got moving first.  Steinwehr’s men were fired on from a hill while passing Brown’s Ferry, and Hooker deployed more troops toward the area against Confederate Brigadier General Evander M Law.  With all this going on, no got out to Wauhatchie Station to help Geary.

Law held his hill top though he was heavily outnumbered.  After standing up to several assaults Law began a drawback, but just as his men were leaving their entrenchments the Union soldiers spilled in and captured some of the Confederates who hadn’t gotten the order to retreat.

Geary’s men were running low on ammunition, but were still holding tight.  Just as the Confederates were looking at victory they received information that Union reinforcement were arriving.  Jenkins broke off and retreated with the rest of the Confederates to Lookout Mountain.  In the fight at Wauhatchie Station the Confederates had losses that numbered 356.  Union casualties numbered 216; including Geary’s own son, an artillery lieutenant who died in his father’s arms.

Friday, October 28, 2011

Anti-Abolitionist Riots

The Boston Riot of October 28th 1835 occurred when a pro-slavery mob went looking British abolitionist George Thomas.

There were riots in New York City and Philadelphia in 1834 led by anti-abolitionist.  In early 1835 British abolitionist George Thompson and the poet John Greenleaf Whittier were stoned in Concord, New Hampshire by pro-slavery people.   In October 1835 Thompson was invited to speak at the Female Anti-Slavery Society of Boston, Massachusetts.  Boston was where William Lloyd Garrison published “The Liberator” a popular abolitionist newspaper.

A mob of anti-abolitionist formed October 28th 1835 and went to the Society looking for Thompson.  They found Garrison instead, tied him and dragged him by the rope through the streets.  Boston’s mayor rescued Garrison, and put him in jail for the night, for his own safety.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Across The River At Brown's Ferry

Fought in Hamilton County, Tennessee, the Battle of Brown’s Ferry took place October 27th 1863.

After the Union defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga, the Army found itself trapped by Confederate General Braxton Bragg’s Army of Tennessee in Chattanooga, Tennessee.  Bragg settled in, to siege the Union position.  He sent Confederate Brigadier General Evander Law downstream, where Law was to stop any Union supply trains.  Union commander Brigadier General William S Rosecrans telegraphed Washington to say, "We have no certainty of holding our position here."  In response Washington sent reinforcements under the command of General Ulysses S Grant.

Grant started on October 26th 1863 to open a supply route from Brown’s Ferry to Chattanooga.  The planned route was designed by Chief Engineer, Brigadier General William F "Baldy" Smith.  The new supply line was named the “Cracker Line”, by soldiers who were running low on food.  Smith’s two brigades under Brigadier Generals William B Hazen and John B Turchin would split, with Turchin’s men marching across land to hold Brown’s Ferry, while Hazen’s would ferry down the river in pontoon boats.

Hazen’s troops made the landing point at 5 am on October 27th 1863.  Although they were moving quietly some of the men were fired on by Confederate pickets.  The Confederates quickly formed for an attack, however at this time Turchin’s men were being ferry across the river.  The combined force of Union men outflanked the Confederate soldiers who withdrew toward Wauhatchie.  By latter that afternoon the 1st Michigan Engineers had a pontoon bridge across river and open.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Protecting The West

Officially established on October 26th 1862, Camp Douglas in Utah was named for Stephen A Douglas.

It was necessary to recall regular army troop back from frontier duty when the Civil War started.  This left the overland mail route and telegraph open to attack from Indians.  Camp Douglas was a small garrison located about three miles east of Salt Lake City, Utah.  Union Colonel Patrick Edward Conner of the 3rd California Infantry was chosen to set up a camp in the Utah Territory, and he selected the site.  The Camp was named after late Illinois Senator Stephen A Douglas by Abraham Lincoln and was formally established on October 26th 1862.  The first winter the post was made up of quickly built dugouts.  Connor had troops from California and Nevada posted at the Camp during the Civil War.  It became the headquarters of the Department of the Pacific and the District of Utah.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

A Charge On Springfield

The First Battle of Springfield [aka Zagonyi’s Charge] was fought October 25th 1861 in Green County, Missouri.

Union Major General John C Fremont made plans to push Confederate Major General Sterling Price’s troops out of Missouri and take the fight on south.  Fremont left St Louis, Missouri on October 7th 1861 with about 20,000 troops.  He also had a cavalry force of about 5,000 under Major Charles Zagonyi.  The cavalry was to ride in the front and scout for Fremont.

As the Union troops neared Springfield, Missouri, Confederate state guard commander Colonel Julian Frazier called for more soldiers.  Fremont stopped about 50 miles from Springfield on the Pomme De Terre River, but Zagonyi’s cavalry continued onto Springfield.  Frazier used his roughly 1,300 men to set up a trap on the road the Union cavalry was traveling to Springfield on.  Instead of ambushing Zagonyi’s horse soldiers, the Union troopers charged the Confederates.  Frazier’s men were routed.

Zagonyi continued into town, were the released Union prisoners.  Fearing a counterattack of Frazier’s Confederates, Zagonyi left Springfield before night fall.

Monday, October 24, 2011

The Little Gamecock

Confederate General James Jay Archer died October 24th 1864 from an illness he developed while a Prisoner of War.

James Jay Archer was born December 19th 1817 near Havre de Grace, Maryland the son of John and Ann [Stump] Archer.  He attended Princeton University; where he picked up the nickname “Sally” do to his small stature.  Archer graduated in 1835 and attending Bacon College in Georgetown, Kentucky he went on to study law at the University of Maryland.  He had a successful law practice going when the Mexican American War broke out.  Archer volunteered for service and was cited for bravery at Chapultepec, receiving a brevet to Major.  He moved to Texas following the war in 1848 were he was wounded in a duel.  Archer returned to law in Maryland, but decided in 1855 to join the United States Army as a Captain in 9th US Infantry.  He served mostly in the Pacific Northwest.

When the Civil War started Archer was at Fort Walla Walla in Washington Territory.  He resigned March 14th 1861, and shortly after was a member of the Confederate Army.  Archer was made a Colonel in the 5th Texas Infantry, and served with excellence at the Battle of Eltham’s Landing and Seven Pines.  On June 3rd 1862 he was promoted to Brigadier General and given command of three Tennessee regiments.  They fought as part of Major General A P Hill’s “Light Division” at Cedar Mountain and Second Bull Run, where he had a horse shot from under him.  His men called him “The Little Gamecock”.  Archer was to sick to ride a horse during the Maryland Campaign of September 1862, and led them from an ambulance.  His men contributed to the victories at the Battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.  By the summer of 1863 Archer’s brigade was part of Major General Henry Heth’s Division, A P Hill’s Corps.
On July 1st 1863 Archer was taken prisoner at the Battle of Gettysburg.  Union Private Patrick Maloney of the 2nd Wisconsin captured him, making Archer the first general to be captured in the Confederate army since General Robert E Lee took command.  Archer was sent to Johnson’s Island on Lake Erie where the Ohio winter cause his health to decline.  After a year at the Fort Johnson prisoner of war camp, Archer was sent with 600 other Confederate officers to Charleston Harbor.  He was exchanged late in the summer of 1864.  He rejoined the Confederate army on August 9th 1864 as part of the Army of Tennessee, but due to his poor health was order to Petersburg, Virginia.  He collapsed following the Battle of Peebles’ Farm.  Archer died October 24th 1864 in Richmond, Virginia and is buried Hollywood Cemetery.

Sunday, October 23, 2011

They Served Well Past The Nine Months

The Second Nebraska Cavalry was organized October 23rd 1862.

The 2nd Nebraska Cavalry was formed as a nine month regiment in Omaha, Nebraska on October 23rd 1862.  There were 1,384 men in the Second.  They saw action in the Indian wars in Western Nebraska and the Dakotas under Union General Alfred Sully.  The Second took part in the Battle of White Stone Hill on September 3rd 1863.  Sully’s troops battled somewhere near 2,000 Yankton Sioux, including Chief Two Bears.  During this fight 7 men from the Second were killed and 14 wounded.

Although the men of the Second were enlisted as nine month men they served over a year.   The regiment mustered out of service on December 23rd 1863.  Many of the men of the Second re-enlisted in the 1st Nebraska Cavalry, and served out the rest of the war.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

In The Indian Territories

The Battle of Old Fort Wayne was fought October 22nd 1862 in eastern Oklahoma.

Confederates started concentrating forces in July 1862 at Fayetteville, Arkansas for a raid into Missouri.  After weeks spent recruiting, Colonel Douglas Hancock Cooper took his men through Indian Territory to Old Fort Wayne, located on the edge of Beatties Prairie.  He placed pickets in Maysville about four mile north, near the Arkansas and Indian Territory boarder.  This put Coopers troops in support of Confederate John Sappington Marmaduke’s Texans located at Cross Hollows, near Lowell, Arkansas.

The closest Union troops were at Pea Ridge, Arkansas.  The Union soldiers were part of John Schofield’s Army of the Frontier.  Schofield received information that there was a Confederate force under Cooper at Maysville.  The scouts told Schofield that it included two of Stand Watie’s Cherokee Regiment and numbered about 7,000 men.

About 5am on October 22nd 1862 Union Brigadier General James G Blunt sent the 2nd Kansas Cavalry to attack the Confederates at Maysville.  The 2nd drove in the pickets and followed them three miles into Indian Territory.  At this point they came up against Cooper’s battle line.  Even though the Union report had Cooper’s force at 7,000 in truth they had only about 1,500 men and four guns of Howell’s Texas Battery, in a line about a mile long.  As the rest of the Union force came up they hit the center of the Confederate line hard, opening a wide hole in the line.  Cooper’s men put up a hard fight for about a half hour, before they were overwhelmed and went into retreat, with Union troops pursuing them for seven miles.

The Union lost about 14 men.  The Confederate’s saw about 150 wounded or dead, including 50 who reported to have been buried on the field.  The Confederates pulled back to Fort Gibson on the Arkansas River, leaving the Indian Territory north of the river in Union control.

Friday, October 21, 2011

The First Union Win

General Felix Kirk Zollicoffer
Fought in Laurel County, Kentucky, the Battle of Camp Wildcat was one of the first Union victories on October 21st 1861.

Confederates under Brigadier General Felix Kirk Zollicoffer moved from Tennessee into central Kentucky, hoping to gain control of the state.  The 5,400 Confederates took control of the Cumberland Gap, pushing out the home guard near Barbourville.  Union Brigadier General George Henry Thomas ordered Colonel Theophilus T Garrard to move troops forward to a ford on the Rockcastle River, in the heavily forested Wildcat Mountain area to block the Wilderness Road.  Garrard was out numbered 7 to 1, before Brigadier General Albin F Schoepf moved into the area bring the Union troops to about 7,000.

The two sides met in the late afternoon of October 20th 1861 in a heated battle.  The morning of October 21st 1861 opened with an intense ground fight.  From behind fortifications the Union soldiers held off repeated attacks by the Confederate forces.  The Confederates withdrew during the night and continued to the Cumberland Ford.  There were 4 Union dead and 18 wounded.  The Confederates lost 11, with 42 wounded or missing.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

I Am Yet And Will Die A Rebel

Confederate guerrilla Samuel “Champ” Ferguson was hung October 20th 1865 for killing a large number of Union soldiers and sympathizers.

Samuel “Champ” Ferguson was born along the Tennessee border in Clinton County, Kentucky November 29th 1821.  He grew up to be a farmer with a streak of violence.  In 1858 Ferguson was said to have killed James Reed a Tennessee sheriff by tying him a tree and riding around the tree hacking the man to death.  He moved with his family to the Calfkiller River Valley in White County, Tennessee in the 1850’s.
Ferguson’s reasons for fighting anything Union related are many.  Some say his wife and daughters were raped by Union soldiers, others say it was because the Confederates promised to forgive previous murder charges and some say just because he enjoyed it.  The area of East Tennessee was evenly divided between Union and Confederate supporters, which gave rise to many guerrilla bands and irregular military groups on both sides of the fight.  At the start of the Civil War Ferguson put together a unit which attacked Union supporters.  His band worked from time to time with Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan and Major General Joseph Wheeler.  Ferguson was even held once for two months by Confederate officials for the murder in Wytheville, Virginia of a government representative.  It is claimed that he personally killed over 100 men during the course of the war.

When the Civil War came to an end Ferguson returned to his home, where he was quickly arrested by Union troops.  He was taking to Nashville, Tennessee and place on trial for 53 murders.  Ferguson admitted to the killing, but contended they were committed as a part of military duty, this included the killing of wounded men and prisoners following the Battle of Saltville.  He was found guilty of murder October 10th 1865 and sentenced to hang.  Ferguson told the court following his sentencing, "I am yet and will die a Rebel ... I killed a good many men, of course, but I never killed a man who I did not know was seeking my life. ... I had always heard that the Federals would not take me prisoner, but would shoot me down wherever they found me. That is what made me kill more than I otherwise would have done. I repeat that I die a Rebel out and out, and my last request is that my body be removed to White County, Tennessee, and be buried in good Rebel soil."

Ferguson was hanged to death October 20th 1865.  He is buried north of Sparta, Tennessee in the France Cemetery.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Off To The Races

The Battle of Buckland Mill was a cavalry fight between Union Brigadier General H Judson Kilpatrick and Confederate Major General JEB Stuart, fought October 19th 1863.

Following the Confederate defeat at Bristoe, Confederate Major General JEB Stuart with a cavalry division under Major General Wade Hampton, were covering General Robert E Lee’s retreat from the Manassas Junction area.  The Confederate cavalry was in the Buckland Mills area.  They were being pursued along the Warrenton Turnpike by Union Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick.  On October 19th 1863 the Union troops were ambushed when Stuart turned on the Union cavalry, while Confederate Major General Fitzhugh Lee charged into the Union flank.  Kilpatrick’s men were overwhelmed, and they bolted to Haymarket five miles away.  The Confederate commanders said it was like a fox hunt and called the Battle, “The Buckland Races”.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Ending Of A Slave Revolt

United States Colonel Robert E Lee led a detachment of Marines against John Brown on October 18th 1859, bringing an end to the Raid on Harper's Ferry.

John Brown led an armed slave revolt against the United States Arsenal in Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859.  Brown rented the Kennedy House in Washington County, Maryland, about 4 miles from Harper's Ferry, where he used the name Isaac Smith.  He led a group of 21 men, including 4 free black men and 1 fugitive slave.  His plan was to capture the arms located at the Arsenal and arm slaves to create a revolt of slaves against their masters.  Brown expected around 400 slaves to join him in a rebellion.
Brown and his followers were trapped in the Harper's Ferry fire engine house on October 18th 1859, when Lee sent United States Lieutenant JEB Stuart in to negotiate for a surrender of Brown and his followers.  Lee then ordered United States Lieutenant Israel Greene to lead the marines against the engine house if Brown refused to capitulate.  Brown would not accept any terms, and two marines armed with sledgehammers tried to break down the door.  They switched to using a ladder and ten marines busted through the door.  Green described the scene, "Quicker than thought I brought my saber down with all my strength upon [Brown's] head. He was moving as the blow fell, and I suppose I did not strike him where I intended, for he received a deep saber cut in the back of the neck. He fell senseless on his side, then rolled over on his back. He had in his hand a short Sharpe's cavalry carbine. I think he had just fired as I reached Colonel Washington, for the Marine who followed me into the aperture made by the ladder received a bullet in the abdomen, from which he died in a few minutes. The shot might have been fired by someone else in the insurgent party, but I think it was from Brown. Instinctively as Brown fell I gave him a saber thrust in the left breast. The sword I carried was a light uniform weapon, and, either not having a point or striking something hard in Brown's accouterments did not penetrate. The blade bent double.”

The whole action only took about three minutes.  Brown and his raiders where take prisoner.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

The Death Of The South's Hero

Confederate General Robert E Lee died October 12th 1870 in Lexington, Virginia.

Robert E Lee spent the day of September 28th 1870 going about his duties as the President of Washington and Lee University.  He attended a meeting of the Vestry of Grace Church in the afternoon, and then went home.  Sitting down to tea, he started to say grace, but when Lee opened his mouth, no sound came out, and he slid in his chair.  Lee had suffered a stroke.

Hope was that the attack was not serious and Lee would soon be back at work.  Once the doctors reached him Lee was diagnosed to have a Congestion of the Brain, as he lay in a coma.  Very little changed with his condition and on October 12th 1870, while surround by family Lee passed away about 9:30 in the morning.  He is buried under the Lee Chapel at the Washington and Lee University.
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Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Chambersburg's First Time

Confederate Major General J E B Stuart’s cavalry raided the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and tried to burn railroad bridges October 11th 1862.

On October 9th 1862 Confederate Major General J E B Stuart headed north from Virginia with about 1800 cavalry.  As they moved north, Stuart was gathering intelligence on Union General George B McClellan’s Army of the Potomac, as well as cutting supply lines.  On the evening of October 10th 1862 Stuart and his men road into the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.  Chambersburg was a Union army supply and railroad center.  The local bureaucrats fled the town, as Stuart took over.
On the morning of October 11th 1862 the Confederates cut telegraph lines, seized supplies and horse and destroyed pretty much everything else.  They moved on about five miles north to demolish the railroad bridge that crossed the Conococheague Creek, but found the steel structure to be more than they had planned for.  Stuart and his men began the trip back to Virginia in the afternoon.

Traveling through Emmitsburg, Maryland, Stuart moved south using back lanes to avoid Union troops in Fredrick, Maryland.  He crossed the Potomac River on October 12th 1862.  Stuart’s three day raid had lasted 130 miles, and cost the north $250,000.  He returned south with 1,200 horses, 500 guns, and numerous local officials that had been captured.  The Confederates only had one wounded, and two missing men.

Monday, October 10, 2011

Training Navy Men

The United States Naval Academy was opened October 10th 1845 in Annapolis, Maryland under George Bancroft.

The United States Naval Academy is the second oldest of the five service academies.  It was established under Secretary of the Navy, George Bancroft and opened October 10th 1845.  The Academy was located on 10 acres of the former grounds of the United State Army’s Fort Severn, where the Severn River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, about 33 miles east of Washington, DC.  On the opening day it had 50 Midshipman students and 7 professors.  Commodore Matthew Perry assisted with the curriculum and reinforced the apprentice system to train seamen.
Students originally studied for five years, with the first and last years spent at the school and the middle three years spent at sea.  This was changed to a four year school in 1851.  The first class to graduate from the Academy was on June 10th 1854.  The Tripoli Monument was moved to the Academy ground in 1860, also the year that the USS Constitution was refurbished for use as a school ship for fourth year Midshipmen.  When the Civil war started the United States government moved the school to Fort Adams, Newport, Rhode Island where it set up temporary facilities.  All the upper class Midshipmen where ordered to sea.  The Academy was moved back to Annapolis in summer of 1865.

Thursday, October 6, 2011

A Northern State Remebered In The South

The Rhode Island Monument to her Civil War soldiers, was dedicated October 6th 1909 in New Bern, North Carolina.

The Rhode Island Monument was donated to the New Bern, North Carolina National cemetery, in honor of her volunteers who died in the state during the Civil War.  The monument is of a bronze classical female figure standing on top of a pink granite base.  It was designed and sculpted by William Whitney Manatt of the Gorham Manufacturing Company of Providence, Rhode Island.  The monument was dedicated October 6th 1909, and the inscription on it reads, “Erected by the state of Rhode Island to commemorate the services of Rhode Island Volunteers who gave up their lives in North Carolina during the Civil War 1861 – 1865.  Fourth Rhode Island Infantry.  Fifth Rhode Island Heavy Artillery.   Battery F First Rhode Island Light Artillery.”

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

A Battle Over A Railroad Cut

The Battle of Allatoona Pass was fought October 5th 1864 in Bartow County, Georgia and was a part of the Franklin Nashville campaign.

After Atlanta, Georgia fell, Confederate Lieutenant General John Bell Hood moved his Army of Tennessee north to threaten Union Major General William Tecumseh Sherman’s supply line.  A Confederate corps under Lieutenant General Alexander P Stewart hit garrisons and damaged track along the Western and Atlantic Railroad between October 2nd and 4th.  Under orders from Hood, Stewart moved to attack the Union supply base where the railroad ran through a gap in the Allatoona Mountain.
The Union garrison was commanded by Colonel John Eaton Tourtellotte, who had the 93rd Illinois, 4th Minnesota and 18th Wisconsin under his command.  Just before the southern troops came up, Union Brigadier General John M Corse joined Tourtellotte with another brigade and took over total command.  The Union position was a strong one, with two earthen fortifications on each side of the deep railroad cut.

Confederate Major General Samuel G French’s division arrived near Allatoona in the early morning hours of October 5th 1864.  A two hour long artillery assault was opened by Confederate Captain Alcide Bouanchaud.  French sent in a demand for surrender but Union force declined.  At this point French sent in his infantry, with Brigadier General Claudius Sears moving from the north, and Brigadier General Francis M Cockrell from the west.  The Union men stood up to a two hour attack against its fortifications.  It looked as though the Union forces would have to surrender.  Then around noon French received a faulty report from his  cavalry that a Union force was advancing, and so he grudgingly called his soldiers off.
Although a small battle it had high casualties, with about 706 Union men killed, wounded, or captured, and 897 Confederate.  Union Brigadier General Corse was wounded, sending a message to Sherman that said, "I am short a cheek bone and one ear, but am able to lick all hell yet."  The Confederates were unable to take the Union garrison or seize the railroad cut.


Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Fourth Try Is The Charm

The Kansas state constitution, known as the Wyandotte Constitution was approved October 4th 1859, making Kansas a free state.

The State Constitution of Kansas; known as the Wyandotte Constitution, to differentiate it from the three constitutions that came before it, was approved by voters on October 4th 1859 by a vote of 10,421 to 5,530.  Kansas was admitted to the Untied States as a free state on January 29th 1861.  The Constitution was the result of a compromise over several sticky issues.  It banned slavery, confirmed women’s property rights along with their right to vote in school elections.  The three constitutions which came before were the 1855 Topeka Constitution, the 1857 Lecompton Constitution and the 1858 Leavenworth Constitution.